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Sources: Sprunger, Keith L. 1999. Mennonitism in print : EMU and the history of Dutch Mennonite printing . n.p.: [1999]., 1999. Menno Simons Historical Library Vertical File.

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A few years back, when I was a young PhD student, I went to one of my professors for advice. How could I turn some of my languishing seminar papers into publications? Particularly papers on Mennonites? My professor, himself a well-known historian of immigration and Jewish life, gave me this advice: when dealing with ethnic groups or subcultures you can emphasize difference from mainstream society or you can place them in the larger American story. He preferred the latter approach.

This advice percolated in my brain for a few years. It eventually helped me re-examine an earlier master’s thesis on Mennonite involvement in the antiwar movement during Vietnam. I had gone the route of emphasizing difference, rather than a story within a story, and in doing so I had missed something important– both about Mennonites and about the antiwar movement.

“Signs of the Times at EMC” (1969 EMC Shen)

The thesis title, “Doves of a Different Feather: Mennonites and the Antiwar Movement During Vietnam,” symbolizes my approach. To quote from the thesis intro (italics not in the original):

The church issues in the 1960s were complex. There was debate on the issues of war, peace, and church-state relationships, a debate that would surround those Mennonites who engaged in antiwar activities . These Mennonites did share characteristics of the larger antiwar movement but, at heart, they cannot be described as a microcosm of that group. Instead, they are best understood within the context of their specific religious community.

Mennonites were a part of the national antiwar movement but they were also a part of a specific ethno-religious community. Some embraced this community, some challenged it, but overall, Mennonite activists engaged with it. Their opposition to the war, therefore, was a form of speaking to the United States government but also to their own community . 1

Part of this thesis is fine. Mennonites who protested the Vietnam War did speak to both government and their own community. But this does not mean that Mennonites are best understood apart from the rest of the antiwar movement.

My thesis had focused on Eastern Mennonite College (now University) and Goshen College antiwar activity. I found examples of antiwar students who were hesitant to identify too closely with the larger antiwar movement. One EMC student wrote about attending a 1969 peace march in Washington, D.C. and explained that he felt “out of place” until the EMC group found other Mennonites at the rally. They linked arms, “mainly to let those who saw us know we had a unique reason for marching.” 2 Others showed similar sentiment discussing draft resistance. Some antiwar students supported those who refused to cooperate with the Selective Service System but hesitated about secular draft resisters and a praised Mennonite draft resisters as different. A Goshen College student compared draft resisters to a “tornado” while claiming conscientious objectors had “stable, religious grounds” for their refusal to participate in war. Another Goshen student also criticized non-Mennonite draft resisters, calling them “starry-eyed” and vague. However, he agreed with them on the “terrible injustice of war.” 3

Cerebral Palsy Diagnosis Overview

Cerebral palsy (CP) results from a traumatic brain injury around the time of a child’s birth. However, doctors typically can’t diagnose CP until later because the symptoms revolve around motor function.

Babies and even young toddlers often lack motor skills, and some children progress faster than others, so physicians don’t always consider cerebral palsy when signs first manifest.

Diagnosing Cerebral Palsy

Every child hits certain developmental milestones as they grow. At two months old, for instance, a child begins to smile, coo and push up while lying on their stomach. By six months, children can usually roll over in both directions and sit up without furniture or by using an adult’s hand for support. When children fail to meet these developmental milestones, physicians can investigate possible causes.

Cerebral palsy can affect children differently, so doctors can’t simply run down a list of signs and check them off. Instead, they have to examine each individual child’s developmental progress, from movement and speech to independence and autonomy.

Identifying CP

Some physicians express concern about cerebral palsy before, during or right after birth because of a specific AllhqFashion Womens Soft Material Zipper Open Toe LowHeels Solid Sandals Gold C81VX
. There are several situations and circumstances that could put a child at higher risk for CP, including maternal health issues, infant illnesses and pregnancy complications.

For instance, premature babies are at a higher risk for CP, especially if they develop jaundice that goes untreated. Additionally, if either the mother or the baby contracts a serious infection, such as bacterial meningitis or syphilis, the child could become more susceptible to CP because of potential brain trauma.

When no risk factors exist, however, physicians must rely on developmental milestones. Parents often notice that their babies or toddlers lack muscle tone or don’t learn to crawl and walk at normal times. Reporting these observations to the child’s pediatrician can help speed up the diagnostic process.

Children should learn to walk between 12 and 18 months and should be able to speak simple sentences by the time they turn two. Furthermore, certain AmoonyFashion Womens Pullon Lowheels Cow Leather Solid OpenToe Sandals Black uxJODX
only affect one side of the body or one set of limbs, so parents should pay attention to symptoms related to asymmetry, as well.

As for small children, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends developmental testing for children at 9, 18, and 30 months. However, if parents observe problems with their kids’ development, they can always request further screening.

When Can a Diagnosis Be Made in Children?

The age at which a child can receive an accurate cerebral palsy diagnosis depends on several factors, including:

About 43% of children with severe CP receive a Danshuz Neoprene Half Soles Purple Sparkle S70698PREU
within the first few months of life, while 70% are diagnosed by their first birthdays. In milder cases, however, diagnosis usually takes place by age three or four. Additionally, changing symptoms can delay diagnosis, especially in children with more than one type of cerebral palsy.

Delays can prove emotionally and physically taxing for parents who must take their children to the doctor frequently and struggle with not knowing why their children have experienced developmental delays. Regular communication with the pediatrician and cooperation with testing and observation can help speed up the diagnostic process.

What Tests Can Be Done for This?

Doctors can use several tests to confirm their suspicions of cerebral palsy. Most are imaging tests, which means the doctors use technology to view the patient’s brain and assess its condition. Because cerebral palsy is tied to brain trauma, physicians can often identify the area that suffered the damage and make their diagnosis.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

One of the first tests doctors often conduct is a magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI. Writing for Medical News Today, Peter Lam describes an MRI as “a noninvasive and painless procedure” that allows radiologists and physicians to view three-dimensional images of the brain in black and white.

Computerized Tomography

A computerized tomography, or CT, scan takes X-rays from multiple angles to form cross-sections of the brain. Because of the multiple viewing angles, these scans are far more detailed than straightforward X-rays.

Cranial Ultrasound

When doctors want a quick look at brain tissue to support a cerebral palsy diagnosis, they often use a cranial ultrasound. This process helps physicians look for brain damage. If doctors suspect brain trauma before, during or after birth, they might conduct an ultrasound immediately to confirm it.

Electroencephalogram

An electroencephalogram, or EEG, measures electrical activity in the brain. This tool can seem scary to young children because of all its wires, but it’s a completely painless process that helps detect abnormalities in brain function.

Other diagnostic tools exist in addition to imaging. Your child’s doctor will monitor his or her hearing and vision as well as speech progress and intellectual development. While this testing can take time, it’s likely to result in a more accurate diagnosis.

Therapy Options to Increase Quality of Life

Regardless of where your child falls on the GMFCS scale, their ranking could change as time passes. With physical and o ccupational therapy , for instance, children can build stamina and muscle tone as well as coordination. Pharmaceutical intervention can also help reduce the symptoms that impair muscle coordination and control.

Your medical team will test your child multiple times to identify motor skill improvements. While children don’t always improve, the original GMFCS level doesn’t always remain permanent. Just like for anyone else, improving muscle tone and practicing coordination can have a positive impact on a child’s motor skills.

Challenges When Diagnosing Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy shares clinical signs with many other disorders and conditions that impact motor development and coordination. This alone often delays diagnosis, especially in mild cases or when the child suffers from multiple forms of cerebral palsy . The doctors on your child’s case must rule out all other possible causes for his or her symptoms.

Additionally, some children simply develop faster than others. If your child doesn’t crawl, speak, or walk as quickly as the child next door, don’t automatically assume your child suffers from a serious condition such as cerebral palsy. While doctors like their patients to hit specific milestones in a timely manner, some kids just need a little more time.

On the other end of the spectrum, some children with cerebral palsy don’t exhibit symptoms until later in life. In mild cases, for instance, the child might learn to walk and crawl on schedule, but experience difficulty with uneven terrain, stairs, and balance later. In these cases, parents and physicians don’t necessarily recognize the symptoms until the child has gotten older.

Parents often experience extreme stress when they believe their children might have a serious health issue. Consequently, your doctor won’t make a premature diagnosis and risk scaring you when he or she could be wrong. Let your doctor follow the diagnosis protocol he or she feels will offer the best results. In the meantime, devote your energy to giving your child the best care possible.

Your Child has Cerebral Palsy, Now What?

Don’t assume that every misstep your child takes is evidence of Bellamarie Jolin1 Women Sweet Jelly TStrap Flat Thong Sandal Flip Flops W/BowNUDE7 BW7m2d
. If you’re concerned, start keeping a journal of your child’s symptoms. Write down your observations as well as the date and time of occurrence so you can share the journal with your physician.

At your next doctor’s appointment, share your concerns and ask for a referral to a specialist. As mentioned above, early intervention can become critical to encouraging faster motor skill development, so don’t hesitate to have your child examined and tested.

You can also educate yourself about cerebral palsy. If you know the Breckelles CC16 Women Leatherette Open Toe Criss Cross Slingback Platform Chunky Heel Sandal Natural Leatherette lnCs7nkHUu
, for instance, you can look for them in your child and identify them when they occur. This is particularly true if you know your child has any risk factors for CP , such as premature jaundice or an infection around the time of birth.

Most importantly, stay in close communication with your doctor. Regular visits can help your physician monitor your child’s development and perform the necessary tests. Whether it’s your pediatrician or a specialist, report any new symptoms immediately.

Cerebral palsy can be difficult to diagnose, but the right medical team will help ensure accuracy and compassion throughout this process. Stay vigilant at home by monitoring your child’s motor skills, and trust your physician to provide an accurate diagnosis.

Sources Used in This Article

Severity

Myth #2:The Allied powers committed atrocities, too – why should we single out Nazism?

“The Nazis were bad, but the Bolsheviks were worse,” a Mennonite born in the USSR told me in March. “You mean from a Mennonite perspective,” I said. My conversation partner shrugged. “Of course.” When white Mennonites think about what life might have been like for them if they had lived in Hitler’s Germany, they invariably assume that they would have been Mennonite—and by extension Aryan. From such a viewpoint, each of the Allied powers, not just the Soviet Union, would have posed a greater threat to life and livelihood than Nazism. In other words, assuming one would have been Aryan creates a false equivalency that downplays genocide.

Studying the Holocaust from a Mennonite-centric perspective runs the added risk of repeating debunked Nazi propaganda, such as the myth that Bolshevism was Jewish. Some invocations of a “Soviet Inferno” falsely imply systematic persecution or even a “final solution” of Mennonites (by Jews) in the USSR. Nazi perpetrators commonly used such reversals to portray themselves as the true victims. Last year, one historian explained Mennonite participation in Nazi death squads, stating: “men and women of Jewish background worked as [Soviet] administrators, agents, and interrogators.” He had previously directed me to a webpage entitled “Jewish Mass Murderers.”

Myth #3: Mennonites were mostly women and children, so they either had no choice or could not have been involved.

Women and children are often invoked to claim Mennonite innocence in Nazi war making. One writer recently claimed, for example: “in the 1930s most Mennonite men [in the USSR] had been exiled, imprisoned or executed, leaving families to be led by mothers and grandmothers,” who were not “collaborators, anti-Semites or Aryan.” Mennonites in Nazi-occupied Ukraine were indeed Yellow Box Womens Harme Slide Sandal Clear YuqeNka
. But there were also plenty of men—many of whom served in administrative positions, as translators, policemen, or soldiers. Gender disparity at the end of the war in part reflected the death or capture of Mennonite men in German uniform.

A table compiled by Nazi occupiers showing the age and gender (men on the left, women on the right) of the 13,000 “ethnic Germans” in Ukraine’s Chortitza colony, ca. 1942. Forty-three percent of “ethnic German” families in Chortitza had no male head of household—but fifty-seven percent did. Source: Karl Stumpp, Bericht über das Gebiet Chortitza im Generalbezirk Dnjepropetrowsk (Berlin: Publikationsstelle Ost, 1943), Tafel H.

This myth further assumes that women or children could not have contributed to Nazism or the Holocaust. However, many Indigo Rd Oneal Women US 9 Black Knee High Boot XnRJ10AD
served as translators or in bureaucratic capacities, sometimes enriching themselves with the spoils of genocide. More often, women supplied moral support to male relatives and contributed to the war effort through their labor. Meanwhile, some underage boys took up arms. And most Mennonite children in the Third Reich absorbed Nazi ideals at school and through organized youth activities. They helped boost morale by singing, marching, and telling stories. Some racist proclivities learned in the 1930s and 1940s persist today.

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